The management of irreparable rotator cuff tears remains challenging. Since its introduction by Mihata in 2012, superior capsule reconstruction (SCR) has grown in popularity at an astonishingly rapid rate. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the available literature, in order to highlight what has so far been published on SCR, covering all aspects including biomechanical, clinical and radiological studies as well as descriptions of the various techniques for performing the procedure. The short-term clinical results of SCR are promising, but there is need for further long-term studies, as well as randomised controlled trials comparing SCR to other treatment modalities for irreparable rotator cuff tears. Further imaging studies looking at graft healing rates are also required as the healing rates published so far are variable. Additionally, the mechanism of action by which SCR delivers good short-term functional outcomes needs further clarification, as does the importance of the choice of graft type and thickness.