The self-aggregation ability of three amphiphilic cationic calixarenes possessing four quaternary amino groups (aminoCAs) was investigated using a variety of methods. All of the studied compounds possess high aggregation ability. Their critical aggregation concentration (CAC) values in water are in the 0.0009-0.04 % (w/v) concentration range. Several size populations of aggregates were detected by DLS for all three CAs, and restructuring of aggregates was observed to be dependent on concentration. Particles formed above CAC were attributed to formation of vesicular structures (vesicles). The coexistence of other type of aggregates (presumably micelles) with vesicles was observed in the aqueous solution of CAs 2 and 3 from concentrations of 0.5 and 0.8 % (w/v), respectively. The filtration procedure was found to be a significant factor since the obtained data from filtered and unfiltered samples was different. The particle sizes obtained by TEM measurements were somewhat correlated with the DLS data for unfiltered CAs solutions. An analysis of the aggregate composition was undertaken by a size-exclusion method using semi-permeable cellophane membranes with different MWCO. A negative deviation from linearity of permeability flux profile starting from 0.8 % (w/v) concentration of donor phase indicated that the fraction of large aggregates at this point is significant enough that the molecules could not easily permeate through the membranes.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry|
|Early online date||31 Oct 2013|
|Publication status||Published - Aug 2014|