Battery-type electrodes of three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical cobalt hydroxide carbonate arrays on Ni foam were fabricated using a hydrothermal method for use in supercapacitors. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize their structures and morphologies. The cobalt hydroxide carbonate synthesized with 10 h reaction time showed the highest specific capacitance (1381 F g−1 at a current density of 2 A g−1) and excellent cycling stability (92% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles). Moreover, its capacitance increased by 33% at 2 A g−1 and by 10% at 20 A g−1 after 5000 charge–discharge cycles. This cobalt hydroxide carbonate composite is a promising candidate for electrochemical energy-related applications.