Systematic review of protein biomarkers in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

Shyam A. Gokani, Andreas Espehana, Ana C. Pratas, Louis Luke, Ekta Sharma, Jennifer Mattock, Jelena Gavrilovic, Allan Clark, Tom Wileman, Carl M. Philpott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by differing inflammatory endotypes. The identification of suitable biomarkers could enable personalized approaches to treatment selection. Objective: This study aimed to identify and summarize clinical studies of biomarkers in adults with CRS in order to inform future research into CRS endotypes. Methods: We conducted systematic searches of MEDLINE and Web of Science from inception to January 30, 2022 and included all clinical studies of adult CRS patients and healthy controls measuring biomarkers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or Luminex immunoassays. Outcomes included the name and tissue type of identified biomarkers and expression patterns within CRS phenotypes. Study quality was assessed using the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies. A narrative synthesis was performed. Results: We identified 78 relevant studies involving up to 9394 patients, predominantly with CRS with nasal polyposis. Studies identified 80 biomarkers from nasal tissue, 25 from nasal secretions, 14 from nasal lavage fluid, 24 from serum, and one from urine. The majority of biomarkers found to distinguish CRS phenotypes were identified in nasal tissue, especially in nasal polyps. Serum biomarkers were more commonly found to differentiate CRS from controls. The most frequently measured biomarker was IL-5, followed by IL-13 and IL-4. Serum IgE, IL-17, pentraxin-3 and nasal phospho-janus kinase 2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17A, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, and interferon gamma were identified as correlated with disease severity. Conclusion: We have identified numerous potential biomarkers to differentiate a range of CRS phenotypes. Future studies should focus on the prognostic role of nasal tissue biomarkers or expand on the more limited studies of nasal secretions and nasal lavage fluid. We registered this study in PROSPERO (CRD42022302787).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)705-729
Number of pages25
JournalAmerican Journal of Rhinology and Allergy
Issue number6
Early online date25 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023


  • biomarkers
  • chronic rhinosinusitis
  • CRSsNP
  • CRSwNP
  • cytokines
  • ECRS
  • endotypes
  • interleukin
  • nasal polyps
  • phenotypes

Cite this