Targeting of plant pattern recognition receptor-triggered immunity by bacterial type-III secretion system effectors

Alberto P Macho, Cyril Zipfel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

191 Citations (Scopus)


During infection, microbes are detected by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to an innate immune response that prevents microbial ingress. Therefore, successful pathogens must evade or inhibit PRR-triggered immunity to cause disease. In the past decade, a number of type-III secretion system effector (T3Es) proteins from plant pathogenic bacteria have been shown to suppress this layer of innate immunity. More recently, the detailed mechanisms of action have been defined for several of these effectors. Interestingly, effectors display a wide array of virulence targets, being able to prevent activation of immune receptors and to hijack immune signaling pathways. Besides being a fascinating example of pathogen-host co-evolution, effectors have also emerged as valuable tools to dissect important biological processes in host cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-22
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Opinion in Microbiology
Early online date13 Nov 2014
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2015


  • Bacteria
  • Bacterial Secretion Systems
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Immune Evasion
  • Plants
  • Pattern Recognition Receptors
  • Virulence Factors

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