Tetrabenzoporphyrin and -mono-, - Cis -di- and tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin derivatives: Electrochemical and spectroscopic implications of meso CH Group replacement with nitrogen

Adele van As, Chris C. Joubert, Blenerhassitt E. Buitendach, Elizabeth Erasmus, Jeanet Conradie, Andrew N. Cammidge, Isabelle Chambrier, Michael J. Cook, Jannie C. Swarts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


Nonperipherally hexyl-substituted metal-free tetrabenzoporphyrin (2H-TBP, 1a) tetrabenzomonoazaporphyrin (2H-TBMAP, 2a), tetrabenzo-cis-diazaporphyrin (2H-TBDAP, 3a), tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin (2H-TBTAP, 4a), and phthalocyanine (2H-Pc, 5a), as well as their copper complexes (1b-5b), were synthesized. As the number of meso nitrogen atoms increases from zero to four, Îmax of the Q-band absorption peak becomes red-shifted by almost 100 nm, and extinction coefficients increased at least threefold. Simultaneously the blue-shifted Soret (UV) band substantially decreased in intensity. These changes were related to the relative electron-density of each macrocycle expressed as the group electronegativity sum of all meso N and CH atom groups, âχR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy differentiated between the three different types of macrocyclic nitrogen atoms (the Ninner, (NH)inner, and Nmeso) in the metal-free complexes. Binding energies of the Nmeso and Ninner,Cu atoms in copper chelates could not be resolved. Copper insertion lowered especially the cathodic redox potentials, while all four observed redox processes occurred at larger potentials as the number of meso nitrogens increased. Computational chemical methods using density functional theory confirmed 1b to exhibit a Cu(II) reduction prior to ring-based reductions, while for 2b, Cu(II) reduction is the first reductive step only if the nonperipheral substituents are hydrogen. When they are methyl groups, it is the second reduction process; when they are ethyl, propyl, or hexyl, it becomes the third reductive process. Spectro-electrochemical measurements showed redox processes were associated with a substantial change in intensity of at least two main absorbances (the Q and Soret bands) in the UV spectra of these compounds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5329-5341
Number of pages13
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Issue number11
Early online date13 May 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015

Cite this