The assessment of global surface temperature change from 1850s: The C-LSAT2.0 ensemble and the CMST-Interim datasets

Wenbin Sun, Qingxiang Li, Boyin Huang, Jiayi Cheng, Zhaoyang Song, Haiyan Li, Wenjie Dong, Panmao Zhai, Philip Jones

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Based on C-LSAT2.0, using high- and low-frequency components reconstruction methods, combined with observation constraint masking, a reconstructed C-LSAT2.0 with 756 ensemble members from the 1850s to 2018 has been developed. These ensemble versions have been merged with the ERSSTv5 ensemble dataset, and an upgraded version of the CMST-Interim dataset with 5° × 5° resolution has been developed. The CMST-Interim dataset has significantly improved the coverage rate of global surface temperature data. After reconstruction, the data coverage before 1950 increased from 78%–81% of the original CMST to 81%–89%. The total coverage after 1955 reached about 93%, including more than 98% in the Northern Hemisphere and 81%–89% in the Southern Hemisphere. Through the reconstruction ensemble experiments with different parameters, a good basis is provided for more systematic uncertainty assessment of C-LSAT2.0 and CMST-Interim. In comparison with the original CMST, the global mean surface temperatures are estimated to be cooler in the second half of 19th century and warmer during the 21st century, which shows that the global warming trend is further amplified. The global warming trends are updated from 0.085 ± 0.004°C (10 yr) −1 and 0.128 ± 0.006°C (10 yr) −1 to 0.089 ± 0.004°C (10 yr) −1 and 0.137 ± 0.007°C (10 yr) −1, respectively, since the start and the second half of 20th century.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)875–888
Number of pages14
JournalAdvances in Atmospheric Sciences
Issue number5
Early online date28 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • C-LSAT2.0 ensemble datasets
  • CMST-Interim
  • EOTs
  • high- and low-frequency components
  • reconstruction

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