In the UK, HIV is considered to be a risk factor for antituberculosis drug resistance. Evidence of the association is, however, inconclusive and there are few population-level data. The present study investigated the association in England and Wales during the period 1999–2005. National tuberculosis surveillance data for adults were matched to HIV/AIDS reports. Unmatched cases were assumed to be HIV-negative. Separate analyses were conducted on new tuberculosis cases and those with a previous diagnosis. Logistic regression was used for univariable and multivariable analyses. There were 1,657 previously diagnosed cases (80 HIV-positive) and 18,130 new cases (1,156 HIV-positive). Isoniazid resistance was found in 8.1% of previously diagnosed cases and 6.6% of new cases, and multidrug resistance in 2.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no evidence of an association between HIV and antituberculosis drug resistance among previously diagnosed cases. Among new cases, there was no overall association between HIV and isoniazid or multidrug resistance after adjusting for confounding factors. White HIV-positive patients were more likely to have multidrug resistance, but numbers were small. In contrast to some previous studies, this large, up-to-date study provides little evidence that HIV co-infected tuberculosis patients in England and Wales are at increased risk of firstline antituberculosis drug resistance.