The association of body mass index with risk of long-term revision and 90-day mortality following primary total hip replacement: Findings from the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man

Sofia Mouchti, Michael R. Whitehouse, Adrian Sayers, Linda P. Hunt, Alexander MacGregor, Ashley W. Blom

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BACKGROUND: The influence of obesity on outcomes following total hip replacement is unclear. Restriction of total hip replacement on the basis of body mass index (BMI) has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of BMI on the risk of revision and 90-day mortality. METHODS: This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of the National Joint Registry (NJR) for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. Using data recorded from April 2003 to December 2015, linked to Office for National Statistics data, we ascertained revision and 90-day mortality rates following primary total hip replacement by BMI category. The probability of revision was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Associations of BMI with revision and mortality were explored using adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: We investigated revision and 90-day mortality among 415,598 and 413,741 primary total hip replacements, respectively. Each data set accounts for approximately 52% of the total number of recorded operations in the NJR. Thirty-eight percent of the patients were classified as obese. At 10 years, class-III obese patients had the highest cumulative probability of revision (6.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.5% to 8.2%]), twice that of the underweight group (3.3% [95% CI, 2.2% to 4.9%]). When the analysis was adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] grade, year of operation, indication, and fixation type, compared with patients with normal BMI, significantly elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for revision were observed for patients in the BMI categories of class-I obese (≥30 to <35 kg/m) (HR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.07 to 1.22]), class-II obese (≥35 to <40 kg/m) (HR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.19 to 1.40]), and class-III obese (≥40 to ≤60 kg/m) (HR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.27 to 1.61]) (p < 0.0005 for all). Underweight patients had a substantially higher cumulative probability of 90-day mortality (1.17%; 95% CI, 0.86% to 1.58%) compared with patients with normal BMI (0.43%; 95% CI, 0.39% to 0.48%). The risk of 90-day mortality was significantly higher for the underweight group (HR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.51 to 2.89]; p < 0.0005) and significantly lower for patients who were categorized as overweight (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.81; p < 0.0005), class-I obese (HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.59 to 0.81]; p < 0.0005), and class-II obese (HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63 to 0.98]; p = 0.049) compared with patients with normal BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Although long-term revision rates following total hip replacement were higher among obese patients, we believe that the rates remained acceptable by contemporary standards and were balanced by a lower risk of 90-day mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2140-2152
Number of pages13
JournalThe Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 19 Dec 2018

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