Perception of biotic and abiotic stresses often leads to stomatal closure in plants 1,2. Rapid influx of calcium ions (Ca 2+) across the plasma membrane has an important role in this response, but the identity of the Ca 2+ channels involved has remained elusive 3,4. Here we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana Ca 2+-permeable channel OSCA1.3 controls stomatal closure during immune signalling. OSCA1.3 is rapidly phosphorylated upon perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Biochemical and quantitative phosphoproteomics analyses reveal that the immune receptor-associated cytosolic kinase BIK1 interacts with and phosphorylates the N-terminal cytosolic loop of OSCA1.3 within minutes of treatment with the peptidic PAMP flg22, which is derived from bacterial flagellin. Genetic and electrophysiological data reveal that OSCA1.3 is permeable to Ca 2+, and that BIK1-mediated phosphorylation on its N terminus increases this channel activity. Notably, OSCA1.3 and its phosphorylation by BIK1 are critical for stomatal closure during immune signalling, and OSCA1.3 does not regulate stomatal closure upon perception of abscisic acid—a plant hormone associated with abiotic stresses. This study thus identifies a plant Ca 2+ channel and its activation mechanisms underlying stomatal closure during immune signalling, and suggests specificity in Ca 2+ influx mechanisms in response to different stresses.