The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service Ocean State Report

Karina von Schuckmann, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Enrique Alvarez-Fanjul, Lars Axell, Magdalena Balmaseda, Lars-Anders Breivik, Robert J.W. Brewin, Clement Bricaud, Marie Drevillon, Yann Drillet, Clotilde Dubois, Owen Embury, Hélène Etienne, Marcos García Sotillo, Gilles Garric, Florent Gasparin, Elodie Gutknecht, Stéphanie Guinehut, Fabrice Hernandez, Melanie JuzaBengt Karlson, Gerasimos Korres, Jean-François Legeais, Bruno Levier, Vidar S. Lien, Rosemary Morrow, Giulio Notarstefano, Laurent Parent, Álvaro Pascual, Begoña Pérez-Gómez, Coralie Perruche, Nadia Pinardi, Andrea Pisano, Pierre-Marie Poulain, Isabelle M. Pujol, Roshin P. Raj, Urmas Raudsepp, Hervé Roquet, Annette Samuelsen, Shubha Sathyendranath, Jun She, Simona Simoncelli, Cosimo Solidoro, Jonathan Tinker, Joaquín Tintoré, Lena Viktorsson, Michael Ablain, Elin Almroth-Rosell, Antonio Bonaduce, Emanuela Clementi, Gianpiero Cossarini, Quentin Dagneaux, Charles Desportes, Stephen Dye, Claudia Fratianni, Simon Good, Eric Greiner, Jerome Gourrion, Mathieu Hamon, Jason Holt, Pat Hyder, John Kennedy, Fernando Manzano-Muñoz, Angélique Melet, Benoit Meyssignac, Sandrine Mulet, Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli, Enda O’Dea, Einar Olason, Aurélien Paulmier, Irene Pérez-González, Rebecca Reid, Marie-Fanny Racault, Dionysios E. Raitsos, Antonio Ramos, Peter Sykes, Tanguy Szekely, Nathalie Verbrugge

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Abstract

The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) Ocean State Report (OSR) provides an annual report of the state of the global ocean and European regional seas for policy and decision-makers with the additional aim of increasing general public awareness about the status of, and changes in, the marine environment. The CMEMS OSR draws on expert analysis and provides a 3-D view (through reanalysis systems), a view from above (through remote-sensing data) and a direct view of the interior (through in situ measurements) of the global ocean and the European regional seas. The report is based on the unique CMEMS monitoring capabilities of the blue (hydrography, currents), white (sea ice) and green (e.g. Chlorophyll) marine environment. This first issue of the CMEMS OSR provides guidance on Essential Variables, large-scale changes and specific events related to the physical ocean state over the period 1993–2015. Principal findings of this first CMEMS OSR show a significant increase in global and regional sea levels, thermosteric expansion, ocean heat content, sea surface temperature and Antarctic sea ice extent and conversely a decrease in Arctic sea ice extent during the 1993–2015 period. During the year 2015 exceptionally strong large-scale changes were monitored such as, for example, a strong El Niño Southern Oscillation, a high frequency of extreme storms and sea level events in specific regions in addition to areas of high sea level and harmful algae blooms. At the same time, some areas in the Arctic Ocean experienced exceptionally low sea ice extent and temperatures below average were observed in the North Atlantic Ocean.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)s235-s320
JournalJournal of Operational Oceanography
Volume9
Issue numbersup2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2016

Keywords

  • Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service
  • Ocean climate variability
  • Ocean monitoring
  • Ocean reporting
  • Ocean variability
  • Operational oceanography
  • State of the ocean

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