The costing of measures for natural hazard mitigation

Laurens M. Bouwer, Elissaios Papyrakis, Jennifer Poussin, Clemens Pfurtscheller, Annegret Thieken

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26 Citations (Scopus)


The literature on the costing of mitigation measures for reducing impacts of natural hazards is rather fragmented. This paper provides a concise overview of the current state of knowledge in Europe on the costing of mitigation measures for the reduction of natural hazard risks (droughts, floods, storms and induced coastal hazards as well as alpine hazards) and identifies knowledge gaps and related research recommendations. Furthermore, it provides a taxonomy of related mitigation options, classifying them into nine categories: (1) management plans, land-use planning, and climate adaptation; (2) hazard modification; (3) infrastructure; (4) mitigation measures (stricto sensu); (5) communication in advance of events; (6) monitoring and early warning systems; (7) emergency response and evacuation; (8) financial incentives; and (9) risk transfer (including insurance). It is found that the costing of mitigation measures in European and in other countries has almost exclusively focused on estimating direct costs. A cost assessment framework that addresses a range of costs, possibly informed by multiple stakeholders, would provide more accurate estimates and could provide better guidance to decision makers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalNatural Hazards Review
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014


  • Natural hazards
  • Mitigation
  • Costs
  • Adaptation
  • Risk reduction
  • Floods
  • Droughts
  • Coastal hazards
  • Alpine hazards

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