Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni stalk-eyed flies have extremely high mating rates. In this paper, we examine the fitness costs and benefits of high mating rates, using flies with low or high early mating rates. We show that high early mating rates are beneficial as they increase the total number of matings gained by a male for a given lifespan. However, males with high early mating rates suffer a cost through lowered survival. There was no consistent effect of male mating rate on female egg production or on male fertility. As higher mating rates are associated with larger accessory gland size, we hypothesize that the extra production of accessory gland products in high early mating males is responsible for much of the cost of reduced longevity.