The great time series classification bake off: a review and experimental evaluation of recent algorithmic advances

Anthony Bagnall, Jason Lines, Aaron Bostrom, James Large, Eamonn Keogh

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855 Citations (Scopus)
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In the last five years there have been a large number of new time series classification algorithms proposed in the literature. These algorithms have been evaluated on subsets of the 47 data sets in the University of California, Riverside time series classification archive. The archive has recently been expanded to 85 data sets, over half of which have been donated by researchers at the University of East Anglia. Aspects of previous evaluations have made comparisons between algorithms difficult. For example, several different programming languages have been used, experiments involved a single train/test split and some used normalised data whilst others did not. The relaunch of the archive provides a timely opportunity to thoroughly evaluate algorithms on a larger number of datasets. We have implemented 18 recently proposed algorithms in a common Java framework and compared them against two standard benchmark classifiers (and each other) by performing 100 resampling experiments on each of the 85 datasets. We use these results to test several hypotheses relating to whether the algorithms are significantly more accurate than the benchmarks and each other. Our results indicate that only 9 of these algorithms are significantly more accurate than both benchmarks and that one classifier, the Collective of Transformation Ensembles, is significantly more accurate than all of the others. All of our experiments and results are reproducible: we release all of our code, results and experimental details and we hope these experiments form the basis for more rigorous testing of new algorithms in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)606–660
Number of pages55
JournalData Mining and Knowledge Discovery
Issue number3
Early online date23 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - May 2017
  • Binary Shapelet Transform for Multiclass Time Series Classification

    Bostrom, A. & Bagnall, A., 1 Sep 2015, Big Data Analytics and Knowledge Discovery: 17th International Conference, DaWaK 2015, Valencia, Spain, September 1-4, 2015, Proceedings. Madria, S. & Hara, T. (eds.). Springer, Vol. 9263. p. 257-269 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9263).

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    Open Access
    41 Citations (Scopus)
    86 Downloads (Pure)

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