The human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 gene contains repressive elements within the promoter and intron 1

Greg Dean, David A. Young, Dylan R. Edwards, Ian M. Clark

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34 Citations (Scopus)


Expression of the TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1) gene is tightly controlled during embryonic development and in the adult animal. Previous studies have focused on elements within the gene promoter which activate transcription of the gene. Here, we identify two regions of the gene which repress transcription: An element upstream of the basal gene promoter at −1718/−1458, represses expression of a reporter gene by approximately 50%; addition of the first intron to any promoter-reporter construct also strongly represses gene expression. The TIMP-1 gene has a short first exon which is transcribed but not translated, with the translation start site located in exon 2. Deletion analysis through intron 1 reveals a number of potential regions which might mediate its effect. Protein binding studies and mutational analyses reveal that a repressive element at +684/+748 binds Sp1, Sp3, and an unidentified Ets-related factor to suppress transcription.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32664-32671
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number42
Publication statusPublished - 3 Aug 2000

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