The impact of common gene variants on the response of biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk to increased fish oil fatty acids intakes

Jacqueline Madden, Christine M. Williams, Philip C. Calder, Georg Lietz, Elizabeth A. Miles, Heather Cordell, John C. Mathers, Anne Marie Minihane

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52 Citations (Scopus)


The cardioprotective actions of the fish oil (FO)-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been demonstrated, and dose-response relationships have been defined. However, there is a substantial and well-recognized within-population heterogeneity in response to FO, the etiology of which is poorly understood. Genetic variation may influence responsiveness. Here we review the available literature relating to gene variants shown to influence tissue LC n-3 PUFA status and response to FO intervention. From this review we conclude that the available evidence is relatively limited. A number of individual genotype × LC-n3 PUFA × phenotype associations have been described, but few have been investigated in subsequent cohorts or confirmed in independent studies. In the context of a more stratified approach to the provision of dietary advice, there is a need for further research to refine current dietary EPA and DHA recommendations. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 31 is July 17, 2011. Please see for revised estimates.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-234
Number of pages32
JournalAnnual Review of Nutrition
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011

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