The influence of information and communication technology on trade in developing countries and partners

Mochammad Fahlevi, Muhammad Ashar Asdullah, Fatima Ali Raza, Waqas Ahmad Watto, Mohammed Aljuaid, Aulia Luqman Aziz

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The widespread use of information and communication technologies (ICT) is evidenced by various devices, systems, and applications that enable organizations and individuals to interact with one another and the digital world. In this study, a comparative analysis framework was employed to evaluate different panel data techniques for the period 1990–2020. The aim is to ensure the robustness of the results and effectively assess ICT modeling in an economic context. The panel techniques found to be relevant and utilized in this study include pooled ordinary least squares (OLS), the fixed effects model (FEM), the random effects model (REM), two-stage least squares (2SLS), fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS), and robust least squares (ROBUSTLS). The sample comprises 12 trading partners in Pakistan, including both developed and developing economies. The results were consistent and robust across all the techniques employed. Based on these findings, various policy implications can be derived, such as the need for Pakistan to form strategic partnerships with both developed and developing nations to increase the trade component of ICT for rapid growth, because enhancing the ICT-based domestic industry will provide more employment and production opportunities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2320814
JournalCogent Business & Management
Issue number1
Early online date25 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Business, Management and Accounting
  • Economic development
  • Hui Shan Loh, Singapore University of Social Sciences, Singapore
  • Industry & Industrial Studies
  • Information & Communication Technology (ICT)
  • information and communication technologies (ICT)
  • international trade
  • ordinary least squares (OLS)

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