The lipid paradox is present in ST-elevation but not in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients: Insights from the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry

Ching-Hui Sia, Huili Zheng, Andrew Fu-Wah Ho, Heerajnarain Bulluck, Jun Chong, David Foo, Ling-Li Foo, Patrick Zhan Yun Lim, Boon Wah Liew, Huay-Cheem Tan, Tiong-Cheng Yeo, Terrance Siang Jin Chua, Mark Yan-Yee Chan, Derek J Hausenloy

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    Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels form the cornerstone approach of cardiovascular risk reduction, and a higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) is thought to be protective. However, in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, higher admission LDL-C and TG levels have been shown to be associated with better clinical outcomes - termed the 'lipid paradox'. We studied the relationship between lipid profile obtained within 72 hours of presentation, and all-cause mortality (during hospitalization, at 30-days and 12-months), and rehospitalization for heart failure and non-fatal AMI at 12-months in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We included 11543 STEMI and 8470 NSTEMI patients who underwent PCI in the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry between 2008-2015. NSTEMI patients were older (60.3 years vs 57.7 years, p < 0.001) and more likely to be female (22.4% vs 15.0%, p < 0.001). In NSTEMI, a lower LDL-C was paradoxically associated with worse outcomes for death during hospitalization, within 30-days and within 12-months (all p < 0.001), but adjustment eliminated this paradox. In contrast, the paradox for LDL-C persisted for all primary outcomes after adjustment in STEMI. For NSTEMI patients, a lower HDL-C was associated with a higher risk of death during hospitalization but in STEMI patients a lower HDL-C was paradoxically associated with a lower risk of death during hospitalization. For this endpoint, the interaction term for HDL-C and type of MI was significant even after adjustment. An elevated TG level was not protective after adjustment. These observations may be due to differing characteristics and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in NSTEMI and STEMI.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number6799
    JournalScientific Reports
    Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2020


    • Aged
    • Cholesterol, LDL/blood
    • Female
    • Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/blood
    • Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods
    • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods
    • Registries/statistics & numerical data
    • Retrospective Studies
    • Risk Factors
    • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood
    • Singapore
    • Time Factors
    • Triglycerides/blood

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