The production, distribution and consumption of metals and alloys at Great Zimbabwe

F. Bandama, A. J. Moffett, T. P. Thondhlana, S. Chirikure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The legacy of vandalism and almost a century of continuous focus on drystone wall masonry is that little is known about metal craft production and consumption activities at Great Zimbabwe. Within these limitations, this paper attempts to explore the metallurgy of Great Zimbabwe, guided by the framework of archival, chronological and fieldwork- and laboratory-based studies. The paper contends that residents of various components of Great Zimbabwe worked and processed their own metal, pointing to homestead-level production and consumption. Metal from local and regional sources sustained long-distance trade with the Indian Ocean rim.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-181
Number of pages22
Issue numberS1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2016

Cite this