The temporal pattern of captan residues on apple leaves and fruit under field conditions in relation to weather and canopy structure

Xiang-Ming Xu, Roy A. Murray, Jose D. Salazar, Kieran Hyder

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22 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Captan is an important fungicide for controlling diseases in horticultural crops. Understanding its dissipation is important for estimating dietary risks and optimising pesticide application. Field experiments were conducted on apple leaves and fruit to investigate (1) the temporal variability of captan residues, (2) the contribution of several factors to the variability in residues and (3) the relationship between residues and climatic conditions. RESULTS: Initial captan deposits and subsequent residues on fruit and leaves were closer to a lognormal than to a normal distribution. The unit-to-unit variation contributed most to the observed variability in the initial deposit and subsequent residues. Variability due to orchards or trees or tree-zone interactions was also frequently important, but there was no discernable trend in the effects. The variability in residues did not appear to decrease over time. Canopy structure affected greatly the initial deposition but had little direct effect on subsequent captan loss. Fruit and leaves on the outside of the tree canopy received more deposit than those on the inside, but these differences gradually decreased over time. Captan loss resulted mainly from the first rainfall after an application. CONCLUSIONS: Captan loss is mainly due to rain, and the loss is negligible under dry conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)565-578
Number of pages14
JournalPest Management Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2008


  • Captan
  • Orchard
  • Residues
  • Scale
  • Spatiotemporal variation

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