Cachexia is a common complication of cancer and may be responsible for 22% of all cancer-related deaths. The exact cause of death in cancer cachexia patients is unknown. Recently, atrophy of the heart has been described in cancer cachexia animal models, which resulted in impaired cardiac function and is likely to contribute to mortality. In cancer patients hyperuricaemia independent of tumour lysis syndrome is often associated with a worse prognosis. Xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolizes purines to uric acid and its inhibition has been shown to improve clinical outcome in patients with chronic heart failure.