Thermal modelling and experimental assessment of the dependence of PV module temperature on wind velocity and direction, module orientation and inclination

E. Kaplani, S. Kaplanis

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A theoretical and experimental analysis of PV module temperature under various environmental conditions is presented in relation to module inclination, wind velocity and direction. The present experimental study, makes use of hourly PV temperature data collected from a double-axis sun-tracking PV system and environmental parameters monitored for a period of one year. The f coefficient which relates the PV module temperature with the intensity of the global solar radiation on the PV plane and the ambient temperature, is assessed in relation to the angle of PV inclination, the wind velocity and the angle of incidence of the wind stream on the PV surface, either front or back. The f coefficient is evaluated both experimentally and theoretically through thermal modelling based on the energy balance equation. The simulation model developed in this study considers heat convection by natural and air forced flow, the flow pattern either laminar or turbulent, the relative geometry of the PV module with respect to the wind direction, and the radiated heat by the PV module. Various expressions for the forced heat convection coefficient available in the literature are tested within the thermal model with reference to the windward and leeward side of the PV module, and their applicability to PV thermal analysis is experimentally assessed in terms of the agreement shown with measured data. The values of the f coefficient provided by the simulation model lie very close to the experimental data for the entire range of PV inclination angles, wind velocities and wind directions tested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)443-460
Number of pages18
JournalSolar Energy
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Inclination
  • Photovoltaic temperature
  • Thermal modelling
  • Wind velocity and direction

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