Three-dimensional water impact at normal incidence to a blunt structure

Ioannis Chatjigeorgiou, Mark Cooker, Alexander Korobkin

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The three-dimensional (3D) water impact onto a blunt structure with a spreading rectangular contact region is studied. The structure is mounted on a flat rigid plane with the impermeable curved surface of the structure perpendicular to the plane. Before impact, the water region is a rectangular domain of finite thickness bounded from below by the rigid plane and above by the flat free surface. The front free surface of the water region is vertical, representing the front of an advancing steep wave. The water region is initially advancing towards the structure at a constant uniform speed. We are concerned with the slamming loads acting on the surface of the structure during the initial stage of water impact. Air, gravity and surface tension are neglected. The problem is analysed by using some ideas of pressure-impulse theory, but including the time-dependence of the wetted area of the structure. The flow caused by the impact is 3D and incompressible. The distribution of the pressure-impulse (the time-integral of pressure) over the surface of the structure is analysed and compared with the distributions provided by strip theories. The total impulse exerted on the structure during the impact stage is evaluated and compared with numerical and experimental predictions. An example calculation is presented of water impact onto a vertical rigid cylinder. Three-dimensional effects on the slamming loads are of main concern in this study.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberRSPA20150849
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Issue number2192
Publication statusPublished - 3 Aug 2016


  • Free-surface flows
  • slamming loads
  • three-dimensional effects

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