Towards efficient battery swapping service operation under battery heterogeneity

Xu Zhang, Yue Cao, Linyu Peng, Naveed Ahmad, Lexi Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


The proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) has posed significant challenges to the existing power grid infrastructure. It thus becomes of vital importance to efficiently manage the Electro-Mobility for large demand from EVs. Due to limited cruising range of EVs, vehicles have to make frequent stops for recharging, while long charging period is one major concern under plug-in charging. We herein leverage battery swapping (BS) technology to provide an alternative charging service, which substantially reduces the charging duration (from hours down to minutes). Concerning in practice that various battery is generally not compatible with each other, we thus introduce battery heterogeneity into the swapping service, concerning the case that different types of EVs co-exist. A battery heterogeneity-based swapping service framework is then proposed. Further with reservations for swapping service enabled, the demand load can be anticipated at BS stations as a guidance to alleviate service congestion. Therefore, potential hotspots can be avoided. Results show the performance gains under the proposed scheme by comparing to other benchmarks, in terms of service waiting time, etc. In particular, the diversity of battery stock across the network can be effectively managed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9072616
Pages (from-to)6107-6118
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number6
Early online date20 Apr 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020


  • Battery switch
  • E-mobility
  • Electric Vehicle
  • Transportation planning

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