Transcriptional changes in prostate of men on active surveillance after a 12-mo glucoraphanin-rich broccoli intervention—results from the Effect of Sulforaphane on prostate CAncer PrEvention (ESCAPE) randomized controlled trial

Maria H Traka, Antonietta Melchini, Jack Coode-Bate, Omar Al Kadhi, Shikha Saha, Marianne Defernez, Perla Troncoso-Rey, Helen Kibblewhite, Carmel M O'Neill, Federico Bernuzzi, Laura Mythen, Jackie Hughes, Paul W Needs, Jack R Dainty, George M Savva, Robert D Mills, Richard Y Ball, Colin S Cooper, Richard F Mithen

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Abstract

Background
Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer progression, largely attributed to the biological activity of glucosinolate degradation products, such as sulforaphane derived from glucoraphanin. Because there are few therapeutic interventions for men on active surveillance for prostate cancer to reduce the risk of cancer progression, dietary approaches are an appealing option for patients.
Objective
We evaluated whether consumption of a glucoraphanin-rich broccoli soup for 1 y leads to changes in gene expression in prostate tissue of men with localized prostate cancer.
Methods
Forty-nine men on active surveillance completed a 3-arm parallel randomized double-blinded intervention study for 12 mo and underwent transperineal template biopsy procedures and dietary assessment at the start and end of the study. Patients received a weekly 300 mL portion of soup made from a standard broccoli (control) or from 1 of 2 experimental broccoli genotypes with enhanced concentrations of glucoraphanin, delivering 3 and 7 times that of the control, respectively. Gene expression in tissues from each patient obtained before and after the dietary intervention was quantified by RNA sequencing followed by gene set enrichment analyses.
Results
In the control arm, there were several hundred changes in gene expression in nonneoplastic tissue during the 12 mo. These were associated with an increase in expression of potentially oncogenic pathways including inflammation processes and epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Changes in gene expression and associated oncogenic pathways were attenuated in men on the glucoraphanin-rich broccoli soup in a dose-dependent manner. Although the study was not powered to assess clinical progression, an inverse association between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and cancer progression was observed.
Conclusion
Consuming glucoraphanin-rich broccoli soup affected gene expression in the prostate of men on active surveillance, consistent with a reduction in the risk of cancer progression. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01950143.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1133-1144
Number of pages12
JournalThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume109
Issue number4
Early online date15 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019

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