Translation and cultural adaptation of EORTC QLQ-LC 29 into Nepalese language for lung cancer patients in Nepal

Sunil Shrestha, Sudip Shrestha, Bhuvan KC, Binaya Sapkota, Anil Khadka, Saval Khanal, Michael Koller

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2 Citations (Scopus)


The quality of life (QoL) of patients with lung cancer (LC) may be affected by disease-related limitations such as patients’ functioning, the severity of symptoms, financial problems resulting along with the side effects of the treatment. The objective of this study was to translate LC-specific QoL questionnaire EORTC QLQ-LC29 into Nepalese language for Nepalese LC patients.

In the process of translation, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) translations guidelines were followed. The translated questionnaire was pilot-tested in a sample of 15 patients with LC. Descriptive statistics were calculated with SPSS version 21.0.

All steps of the EORTC translation guideline were followed successfully. Fifteen lung cancer patients were included in the pilot study. Sixty percent were male and the mean age was 49.87 (range 21–76 years). For all items not related to thoracic surgery, patients used the entire range of the response options from 1 to 4 and no missing responses were observed. The highest mean (indicating a high symptom burden) was observed for the item number. 35 (shortness of breath; Mean = 3.33, SD = 1.11) and the lowest mean for an item number. 45 (dizzy; Mean = 1.73, SD = 0.96).

The Nepalese version of EORTC QLQ-LC29 is a result of a successfully conducted rigorous translation procedure, and is highly comprehensible as well as acceptable to Nepalese LC patients. Thus, the Nepalese version of EORTC QLQ-LC29 is ready to be used in international clinical studies as well as in Nepalese clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Article number46
JournalJournal of Patient-Reported Outcomes
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jun 2020


  • Cultural adaptation
  • LC29
  • Lung cancer
  • Nepalese version
  • Translation
  • Validation

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