Trends in the distribution of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and cessation:evidence among adults aged 18 ~ 59 from China Family Panel Studies data

Ming Zhao Huang, Tai Yi Liu, Zhong Min Zhang, Fujian Song, Ting Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Introduction: Cigarette smoking is usually more prevalent among those with a lower socioeconomic status (SES), which can be driven by inequalities in the initiation and cessation of smoking, giving rise to SES disparities in health. This study aimed to gauge the SES inequalities in smoking related behaviours and their evolving trends based on a nationally representative database. Method: Data were extracted from repeated cross-sectional China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) of adults aged ≥18 and <60 years in 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018. SES was constructed by principal component analysis based on income, education and occupation. Regression-based odds ratios and coefficients as the relative effect index of inequality were applied to quantify the degree of socioeconomic inequality in smoking related behaviours and to adjust for possible confounding factors. Multivariable regressions were utilized to explore the temporal trends in smoking inequalities. Results: The smoking prevalence among men decreased from 61.16% to 2012 to 57.88% in 2018, cigarette consumption among current smokers declined from 16.71 to 15.49 cigs/per day, and the cessation rate increased from 17.55% to 24.08%. Cigarette consumption for women decreased from 13.39 in 2012 to 11.01 cigs/per day in 2018. Smoking prevalence showed significant SES inequalities among men and women from 2012 to 2018 (men: OR 2012 (95%CI)= 0.72 (0.63, 0.83), OR 2014 = 0.60 (0.52, 0.69), OR 2016 = 0.58 (0.50, 0.67), OR 2018 = 0.56 (0.48, 0.66); women: OR 2012 = 0.63 (0.41, 0.97), OR 2014 = 0.50 (0.32, 0.79), OR 2016 = 0.44 (0.26, 0.73), OR 2018 = 0.50 (0.30, 0.85)). Cigarette consumption showed significant SES inequalities among men from 2012 to 2018 (β 2012 =-1.39 (-2.22, -0.57), β 2014 =-2.37 (-3.23, -1.50), β 2016 =-2.35 (-3.25, -1.44), β 2018 =-2.91 (-3.86, -1.97)). In 2018, inequality emerged in smoking cessation rates among men and smoking intensity among women. However, all tests for trends in changes over time were not statistically significant (P varied from 0.072 to 0.602). Conclusion: The smoking prevalence declined between 2012 and 2018 in China. However, SES inequalities in smoking persist, while socioeconomic inequalities in smoking were not alleviated among adults aged 18 ~ 59 in China. Tobacco control measures should be implemented by giving more attention to people with lower SES who are more vulnerable to tobacco use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number86
JournalInternational Journal for Equity in Health
Volume22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2023

Keywords

  • Adult
  • China
  • Inequality
  • Smoking
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Tobacco control

Cite this