Urinary excretion of strawberry anthocyanins is dose dependent for physiological oral doses of fresh fruit

Wendy Hollands, Gary M. Brett, Jack R. Dainty, Birgit Teucher, Paul A. Kroon

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There is considerable interest in coloured fruits and berries as sources of biologically active anthocyanins. To examine the relationship between the oral dose and the amount excreted for anthocyanins from a food source across a physiological range of doses, volunteers were fed, in random order, four portions (100–400 g) of fresh strawberries as part of a standard breakfast. Urine was collected at 2 h intervals up to 8 h, and for the period 8–24 h. Fresh strawberries contained pelargonidin-3-glucoside as the major anthocyanin with smaller amounts of cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside. Anthocyanins were detected in the urine of all volunteers for all doses, predominantly as pelargonidin glucuronide and sulphate metabolites. There was a strong, linear relationship between oral dose and anthocyanin excretion (Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient = 0.692, p < 0.001, n = 40) which indicated that on an average, every additional unit of dose caused 0.0166 units of excretion. Within individuals, dose – excretion data fitted a linear regression model (median R2 = 0.93). We conclude that strawberry anthocyanins are partially bioavailable in humans with a linear relationship between oral dose and urinary excretion for doses up to 400 g fresh fruit.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1097-1105
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular Nutrition & Food Research
Issue number10
Early online date21 Jul 2008
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008


  • Bioavailability
  • Dietary antioxidants
  • Flavonoids
  • Human metabolism
  • Polyphenols

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