Use of Vitex doniana (black plum) and Abutilon hirtum (Florida keys) extracts as an integral part of phytomedicine in tackling multidrug-resistant Salmonella

Dawang Noel, John Wain, Patricia Lar

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Introduction: The high prevalence and global spread of antibiotic resistance is driving the search for new antibacterial agents. Screening small molecules against specific bacterial targets has not yielded new compounds therefore functional assays and phenotypic screens are now being used. In Nigeria, drug resistance towards Salmonella is a major public health concern.

Methodology: Nine fully characterized clinical Salmonella isolates, from the Department of Medical Microbiology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Plateau State, Nigeria, were screened by broth microdilution for susceptibility to fractionated ethanol extracts of Vitex doniana and Abutilon hirtum. This was compared to the control organism ATCC25922 and a range antibiotics: CH (chloramphenicol), SP (sparfloxacin), AM (amoxicillin), CN (gentamicin), S (streptomycin), PEF (pefloxacin).

Results: The most common resistance profile was AM,CN,S with most isolates susceptible to fluoroquinolones. Activity was detected from both plant extracts with MICs of extracted fractions ranging from 150 - 300 µg/mL. Interestingly both plants produced extracts with bactericidal activity from 300 - 600 µg/mL. V. doniana exhibited better activity against the resistant Salmonella strains in terms of greater inhibition zones, but A. hirtum extracts were more consistently active against all isolates. In comparison with the synthetic drugs, both plant extracts exhibited activity against more isolates – this activity was bactericidal.

Conclusions: Nigeria needs better anti-salmonella products and these results represent a starting point for antibiotic drug discovery.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1323-1328
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Infection in Developing Countries
Issue number08
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2022


  • Antibacterial activity
  • Medicinal plants.
  • Multi-drug resistant salmonellae

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