In the current study, we extend a previous methodological pipeline by adding a novel image reconstruction approach to move functional near-infrared (fNIRS) signals from channel-space on the surface of the head to voxel-space within the brain volume. We validate this methodology by comparing voxel-wise fNIRS results to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results from a visual working memory (VWM) task using two approaches. In the first approach, significant voxel-wise correlations were observed between fNIRS and fMRI measures for all experimental conditions across brain regions in the fronto-parieto-temporal cortices. In the second approach, we conducted separate multi-factorial ANOVAs on fNIRS and fMRI measures and then examined the correspondence between main and interaction effects within common regions of interest. Both fMRI and fNIRS showed similar trends in activation within the VWM network when the number of items held in working memory increases. These results validate the image-based fNIRS approach.
- Functional near-infrared spectroscopy
- Functional magnetic resonance imaging
- Visual working memory
- Image reconstruction
- Working memory load