Water entry of a body which moves in more than six degrees of freedom

Y. M. Scolan, A. A. Korobkin

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The water entry of a three-dimensional smooth body into initially calm water is examined. The body can move freely in its 6 d.f. and may also change its shape over time. During the early stage of penetration, the shape of the body is approximated by a surface of double curvature and the radii of curvature may vary over time. Hydrodynamic loads are calculated by the Wagner theory. It is shown that the water entry problem with arbitrary kinematics of the body motion, can be reduced to the vertical entry problem with a modified vertical displacement of the body and an elliptic region of contact between the liquid and the body surface. Low pressure occurrence is determined; this occurrence can precede the appearance of cavitation effects. Hydrodynamic forces are analysed for a rigid ellipsoid entering the water with 3 d.f. Experimental results with an oblique impact of elliptic paraboloid confirm the theoretical findings. The theoretical developments are detailed in this paper, while an application of the model is described in electronic supplementary materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20150058
Number of pages13
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Issue number2177
Publication statusPublished - 8 Apr 2015


  • Free body motion
  • Hydrodynamic loads
  • Three-dimensional flow
  • Water impact

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