What is treatment success in cardiac resynchronization therapy?

Paul W. X. Foley, Francisco Leyva, Michael P. Frenneaux

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58 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for symptomatic patients with heart failure, a prolonged QRS duration, and impaired left ventricular (LV) function. Identification of 'responders' and 'non-responders' to CRT has attracted considerable attention. The response to CRT can be measured in terms of symptomatic response or clinical outcome, or both. Alternatively, the response to CRT can be measured in terms of changes in surrogate measures of outcome, such as LV volumes, LV ejection fraction, invasive measures of cardiac performance, peak oxygen uptake, and neurohormones. This review explores whether these measures can be used in assessing the symptomatic and prognostic response to CRT. The role of these parameters to the management of individual patients is also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)v58-v65
Number of pages8
Volume11 Suppl 5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2009


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial
  • Heart Failure
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Prognosis
  • Stroke Volume
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ventricular Function, Left
  • Ventricular Remodeling

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