Where's the orange? geometric and extra-geometric factors in children's talk of spatial relations

Lynn V. Richards, Kenny R. Coventry, John Clibbens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The effect of both geometric and extra-geometric factors on children's production of in is reported (free-response paradigm). Eighty children across four age groups (means 4;1, 5;5, 6;1, and 7;1) were shown video scenes of puppets placing real objects in various positions with reference to a bowl and a plate. Located objects were placed at three heights on top of piles of other objects in the scene. The extra-geometric factor of location control of the located object was manipulated by comparing static scenes to dynamic scenes in which the located object was depicted as either moving independently of, or together with, the reference object. Additionally, the located object was placed on other objects that were either the same or different (e.g. an apple on apples or on oranges). The results indicate that even the youngest children altered the way they talked according to not only geometric but also extra-geometric factors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-175
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Child Language
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2004

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