Massive overhunting of wildlife for meat across the humid tropics is now causing local extinctions of numerous species. Rural people often rely heavily on wild meat, but, in many areas, this important source of food and income is either already lost or is being rapidly depleted. The problem can only be tackled by looking at the wider economic and institutional context within which such hunting occurs, from household economics to global terms of trade. Conservation efforts must be placed within a landscape context; a mosaic of hunted and no-take areas might balance conservation with continued subsistence use. Successful conservation of hunted wildlife requires collaboration at all scales, involving local people, resource extraction companies, governments and scientists.